Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organisation of 36 member countries which share ‘a commitment to market economies backed by democratic institutions and focused on the wellbeing of all citizens.’ (See OECD’s website: It was established in 1960 by an eponymous Convention which transformed the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation into the OECD. Its stated mission is ‘to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world.’ (See OECD’s website: The OECD collects information, produces analyses and recommends policies on topics varying from agriculture through chemical safety to tax and finance, while providing a forum for governments to share experiences and seek solutions to problems.

The OECD may ‘take decisions which, except as otherwise provided, shall be binding on all the [m]embers.’ (Article 5 of the Convention on the OECD) The decisions are taken by consensus. The OECD may also make non-binding recommendations to members and enter into agreements with members and third parties.

With respect to cyberspace activities, the OECD deals with the internet economy, e-government, internet governance, and cyber security and privacy. In 2008, the Ministers and representatives issued the Seoul Declaration for the Future of Internet Economy, (See also the subsequent publication: OECD, “The Internet Economy on the Rise: Progress since the Seoul Declaration”, 2013, in which they declared their support for ubiquitous access, fostering creativity and strengthening the security of the internet. There is also an  OECD Recommendation on Digital Government Strategies.

In the field of cyber security, the OECD specialises in critical information infrastructures protection, cyber security strategies, malware and botnets, protecting children online, and digital identity management and electronic authentication. (See OECD’s website: The most important publications on cyber security are the Recommendation of the Council on the Protection of Critical Information Infrastructures (2008), the updated (2013) Guidelines governing the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data, and the Recommendation of the Council on Digital Security Risk Management for Economic and Social Prosperity (2015).