Admiral Rogers emphasised that building international and interdisciplinary cooperation is essential to have a free, open and safe cyberspace. The maritime domain provides an example of how the global commons are regulated, similar principles could be applied to cyberspace. Ambassador Ducaru highlighted that NATO’s mandate is protecting its own networks by enhancing cyber defence and the focus is on resilience. Cyber has become an integral part of collective defence.
Vice Admiral Grooms stressed the importance of cooperation. He said that in terms of deterrence, we are not there yet, but on a good way. Mr Rudolf Roy talked about trust between partners and of the problems concerning the fragmentation of the Internet. He said there is a need for new solutions instead for a corporation governing the Internet. Ms McKay emphasised that governments are responsible for protecting the integrity of both private users and the states. She stressed the importance of collaboration with private sector partners.
The Future of Internet Governance
Trust in an open and interoperable Internet infrastructure is necessary to improve its governance. The challenge lies in the fact that the international community currently cannot agree on who can be trusted with the task. It was emphasised that the public core of the Internet should be respected and that nations should avoid undermining the integrity and security of these core structures.
Situational Awareness Today and Tomorrow
Effective situational awareness is meant to support the decision making process. However, it has to move toward a more mature model that takes into account continuous changes while the role of the human agent is preserved as exercising the ultimate control.
International Law Developments
Some bold changes were proposed: for instance, some of the requirements for countermeasures should be relaxed. Cyber espionage is a threat to international peace and security, and it should be regulated more strictly. The pragmatic question is how to gain international support for these changes.
Cyber Conflict after Stuxnet
Stuxnet is still regarded as a milestone which opened the Pandora’s box of cyber conflict. Apparently, states are the only entities that have the capacity and financial means to develop cyber weapons of this kind. One of the consequences of this is the proliferation of cyber weapons. The threat is increased as the complex techniques that were used become available in the public domain.
Network Centric Warfare
Network Centric Warfare architecture relies on fast, robust communications. Within emerging threat scenarios where Anti Access and Area Denial Operations pose a major risk, a more “robust” Network Centric Warfare Doctrine is needed.
Tallinn Manual 2.0
2 years after the publication of Tallinn Manual 1.0, the Tallinn Manual 2.0 project is now fully under way, and the final product should be published in 2016. It will focus on peacetime aspects of cyber operations and discuss issues such as state sovereignty and due diligence.
These overviews are for informational purposes only. Conference proceedings are available as a publication. Videos and presentations will be published on www.cycon.org later in the year.