Kaarel Kalm is a graduate student at the Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London were he is specializing in countering organised crime and terrorism. His research interests are asymmetric conflicts and non-state agent networks. He interested in how conflicts with non-military and non-state agents (organised crime, hacker networks, religious groups, covert state-sponsored networks) influence state deterrence structures and policies. Prior to that, he held different civil service posts in Estonian Government Agencies. He also has a BA in Political Science and MA in International Relations from the University of Tartu, Estonia.
Illicit Network Structures in Cyberspace
Different types of covert illicit networks in cyberspace hold the potential to become actors in cyber conflicts. Current literature on structures of covert networks in cyberspace is often constrained by the lack of quantitative data and researchers mostly focus on networks operating outside the cyberspace. The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of research into illicit networks in cyberspace and to apply the terminology and concepts of Social Network Analysis on criminal organisations operating online. Social Network Analysis is a quantitative data analysis method, which can identify hierarchies, subgroups, individuals and their relative importance in covert illicit networks, by using data from multiple sources (academic research, law enforcement, black market trading, semantic web analysis etc.). Here I explore how Social Network Analysis offers methods to discover hidden structures of covert networks in cyberspace.